IP Calculator in detail
Taking the IP in consideration, we will break it down into parts. Thus, it is always necessary to know which network mask is associated with the network to know what the broadcast or network addresses are. In this case, we will use the mask (or represented simply as / because it has active bits, see below).
The first step we need to do is to convert each part of the IP (octets = blocks of 8 bits) to binary to understand how the mask is applied. All the active bits of the mask (the ones with 1) must be part of the network, while the bits with 0 are section of the hosts of this network.
How to calculate?
In the following example, by taking the network bits (the ones with 1), we can define everything from that by separating the “fixed” part from the “variable” part. If you observe the table above, you will see that the first IP is using the right block with the first active bit (with 1). All other addresses follow the same pattern (separating the network address from the host portion).